C# - Loops

Loops

A loop is a statement, or set of statements, that are repeated for a specified number of times or until some condition is met. The type of loop you use depends on your programming task and your personal coding preference. One main difference between C# and other languages, such as C++, is the foreach loop, designed to simplify iterating through arrays or collections.

The for Loop

C# for loops provide a mechanism for iterating through a loop whereby you test whether a particular condition holds true before you perform another iteration. The syntax is

for (initializer; condition; iterator)
    statement(s)

The for loop is a so-called pretest loop because the loop condition is evaluated before the loop statements are executed; therefore, the contents of the loop won’t be executed at all if the loop condition is false.

The for loop is excellent for repeating a statement or a block of statements for a predetermined number of times. The following example demonstrates typical usage of a for loop. It will write out all the integers from 0 to 99:

for (int i = 0; i < 100; i=i+1) 
{
Console.WriteLine(i);
}

The While Loop

While Loop :It repeats a statement or a group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body.

Syntax:
initializer;
while ( condition )
{
    statement;
    iterator;
}

The do-while Loop

The third C# loop is the do-while. Unlike the for and the while loops, in which the condition is tested at the top of the loop, the do-while loop checks its condition at the bottom of the loop. This means that a do-while loop will always execute at least once. The general form of the do-while loop is

initializer;
do 
{
    statements;
    iterator;
} while(condition);

The foreach Loop

A foreach loop is used to iterate through the items in a list. It operates on arrays or collections such as ArrayList, which can be found in the System.Collections namespace. The syntax of a foreach loop is foreach ( in ) { }. The type is the type of item contained in the list. For example, if the type of the list was int[] then the type would be int.

foreach (int temp in arrayOfInts)
{
Console.WriteLine(temp);
}

Jump Statements

C# provides a number of statements that enable you to jump immediately to another line in the program.

The break Statement

You have already met the break statement briefly — when you used it to exit from a case in a switch statement. In fact, break can also be used to exit from for, foreach, while, or do..while loops. Control will switch to the statement immediately after the end of the loop.

If the statement occurs in a nested loop, control switches to the end of the innermost loop. If the break occurs outside of a switch statement or a loop, a compile-time error will occur.

The continue Statement

The continue statement is similar to break, and must also be used within a for, foreach, while, or do.. while loop. However, it exits only from the current iteration of the loop, meaning that execution will restart at the beginning of the next iteration of the loop, rather than outside the loop altogether.

The return Statement

The return statement is used to exit a method of a class, returning control to the caller of the method. If the method has a return type, return must return a value of this type; otherwise, if the method returns void, you should use return without an expression.